This is a vintage Japanese Haribako, traditional sewing box made of Tochinoki (horse chestnuts) and Kiri (paulownia) wood.
This Haibako has a traditional shape which has a tower on the left. Opening the cover on top, this area is used for pin cushion and small drawer to store sewing tool. The heart shaped opening below is used to hook a needle retainer called Harikake.
Its age is from the Taisho period (1910's-920's) and it was originally used to store sewing accoutrements, spools of thread, a pin cushion with pins and other tools used by a seamtress or tailor. Present day purposes would include using it as a jewelry box, a keepsake or small collectibles box, a stationary box on a desk or a cosmetics box on a dresser.